Register for a free account

It is a molecular diagnostic test that allows knowing the state of receptivity of the endometrium. Thanks to this test, the chances of implantation failures are reduced, since it allows you to determine the appropriate day to perform the embryo transfer. Endometrial receptivity is necessary to achieve pregnancy, because although embryos of very good quality are achieved, if they are transferred at an inappropriate time in the cycle, implantation failure is likely to occur. The endometrial receptivity test is used to evaluate the state of the endometrium and determine if it has a genetic profile of receptivity or non-receptivity at the time of the biopsy. The implantation window is on the day the biopsy was performed and the endometrium is receptive during those days. Therefore, the transfer of the embryos will be done during those same optimal days for implantation in a later cycle. It is indicated, above all, for patients who have had implantation failure with good quality embryos. The ERA test allows, before starting an assisted reproduction treatment, to detect the personalized implantation window of the patient. The ERA test is more sensitive than the classic method of dating endometrial status, based on histological criteria, with a high degree of subjectivity and which has been shown not to discriminate between fertile and infertile patients.

My approach to the interpretation of endometrial biopsies and curettings

Providing cutting-edge scholarly communications to worldwide, enabling them to utilize available resources effectively. We aim to bring about a change in modern scholarly communications through the effective use of editorial and publishing polices. Monique Monard. E-mail : bhuvaneswari. Courtney Marsh. Katelyn Schumacher.

Endometriosis is a condition in which the endometrium, the inner lining of the Meanwhile, Gordon asks for John ’s help with his dating life, Alara goes on a​.

Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually. Someone’s sexual orientation is their pattern of sexual interest in the opposite or same sex. Social aspects deal with the effects of human society on one’s sexuality, while spirituality concerns an individual’s spiritual connection with others. Sexuality also affects and is affected by cultural, political, legal, philosophical, moral , ethical , and religious aspects of life.

Interest in sexual activity typically increases when an individual reaches puberty. Hypothesized social causes are supported by only weak evidence, distorted by numerous confounding factors. Evolutionary perspectives on human coupling, reproduction and reproduction strategies , and social learning theory provide further views of sexuality. Some cultures have been described as sexually repressive.

There is considerably more evidence supporting innate causes of sexual orientation than learned ones, especially for males. This evidence includes the cross-cultural correlation of homosexuality and childhood gender nonconformity , moderate genetic influences found in twin studies , evidence for prenatal hormonal effects on brain organization, the fraternal birth order effect, and the finding that in rare cases where infant males were raised as girls due to physical deformity, they nevertheless turned out attracted to females.

Cross-cultural evidence also leans more toward non-social causes.

Secretory Phase and Implantation

Note: In lieu of eating pineapple with the core around embryo implantation, we recommend supplementing with Bromelain. Bromelain treatment shows some side effects including diarrhea, nausea, flatulence, headache, tiredness, dry mouth, skin rash, and unspecified allergic reactions. Pineapple contains an enzyme called bromelain, which can support embryo implantation and endometrial receptivity. Both bromelain and turmeric can increase the risk of bleeding, especially if you also take blood thinners.

Purslane, also called Portulaca oleracea, is plants consider a weed in the United States and it is found in most gardens. Eating foods such as papaya or drinking pineapple juice can cause internal contractions and cervix dilation leading to a miscarriage [1] [2].

Breakups & Reunions · Intimacy & Dating · Friendship & Hooking Up · Relationships Stages · Sex Problems & Health · Sexual Techniques.

Steven G. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1 March ; 3 : — It is well known that a number of problematic diagnostic scenarios occur relative to these specimens. Recognition of diagnostic pitfalls and practical approaches to their resolution help improve quality. Although most diagnostic pathologists encounter numerous endometrial specimens in their daily practice, many perplexing problems are still encountered when dealing with these specimens.

The intent of this review is to emphasize practical aspects of endometrial specimen handling and report generation, with selected comments on common diagnostic pitfalls, particularly those noted as such in the literature and in my own experience as a consultant and as the Pathology Referee for the Gynecologic Oncology Group. For other recent reviews on the pathology of the endometrium, particularly regarding diagnostic problems related to endometrial carcinoma, the reader is referred to recently published monographs, chapters, and review articles, including but not limited to the ones referenced here.


Take a test. Due to thrombosis blockage of small blood vessels , there is a decrease in platelet count. It plays a critical role in embryonal development by providing nutrients, serving as the site of initial hematopoiesis, providing endocrine, metabolic and immunological functions and contributing to the development of fetal gastrointestinal and reproductive systems 2.

Dating the Endometrial Biopsy. Fertil Steril , • Observational Study. • Clinical Significance (?). • Used routinely in the evaluation.

The endometrium is typically biopsied because of abnormal bleeding. Endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma are dealt with in separate articles. An overview of gynecologic pathology is in the gynecologic pathology article. Other indications: [2]. An increased gland density is seen focally, at the edge of one tissue fragment, in association with tearing of the stroma compression artifact.

The big table of metaplasias – adapted from Nicolae et al. Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the USA. From Libre Pathology. Main article: Proliferative phase endometrium. Main article: Secretory phase endometrium. Main article: Arias-Stella reaction. Main article: Endometritis. Main article: Benign endometrial polyp. Main article: Anovulatory endometrium.

The Normal Endometrium

Log in to view full text. If you’re not a subscriber, you can:. Colleague’s E-mail is Invalid. Your message has been successfully sent to your colleague. Save my selection. Thus, studies that clearly delineate which histologic parameters serve as the greatest source of disagreement for pathologists provide a valuable framework for further refinement of the criteria for endometrial dating.

Endometrial dating. And nonatypical versus complex, the proliferative endometrium. Author: 13 march , m. Webpathology. Pathology, the world health.

Diagnosis of Endometrial Biopsies and Curettings pp Cite as. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Advertisement Hide.

endometrial dating

Metrics details. It is postulated that women suffered from recurrent implantation failure RIF have different endometrial receptivity compared to those who experienced with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage RM. MUC1 expression in both luminal and glandular epithelium in women with RIF were significantly lower than that in women with RM and fertile controls.

Decreased MUC1 expression were not significantly associated with age, BMI, gravidity, parity, cycle length, progesterone level and previous miscarriage. Endometrium is critical for a successful implantation [ 1 ]. For only a short period of time during mid-luteal phase, the endometrium becomes receptive to the embryo to implant.

ogist correlates the cycle date by histology with with secretory endometrium and a confirmed Histologic Dating of the Normal, Cycling Endometrium.

Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. Glycogen and its products of metabolism are considered to be the most important and direct source of nutrient for the early conceptus. The premenstrual biopsies were taken from women with primary infertility whose male partners had normal semenograms. Glycogen was confirmed by treatment with diastase enzyme, after that PAS stain gave negative staining , i. Glycogen deficiency was observed in Depletion of glycogen results in inadequate preparation of endometrium at the time of implantation , and hence, may be one of the causes of infertility.

Padubidri and S. Padubidri, Ed.

Human sexuality

With embryo culture conditions continuing to improve, the rate-limiting step in assisted reproduction technology ART remains the implantation of the embryo in the endometrium Macklon et al. The human endometrium is a unique dynamic tissue that cyclically sheds, regenerates and undergoes complex molecular, cellular and functional changes in response to sex hormones, preparing for embryo implantation Psychoyos , Salamonsen As an increasing number of women postpone their motherhood Baird et al.

chronological dating of the endometrium. Thirdly, establishing the prognostic value of morphologi- cal study of the endometrium requires careful long-term.

Nevertheless, there is no consensus regarding the most suitable period of the luteal phase for performing the biopsy. OBJETIVE: This study evaluated the correlation between the histological dating of two endometrial biopsies performed in the same menstrual cycle, on luteal phase days six and ten. Dating was done according to morphometric criteria, in which an endometrium sample is considered out of phase if the minimum maturation delay is one day. Luteal phase. Female infertility.

Evaluation of the luteal phase of regularly cycling women complaining of infertility is directed towards the evaluation of corpus luteum activity and the action of progesterone on the endometrium. Endometrial maturation, whose role in human reproduction was first recognized by Jones, 1 is evaluated by the Noyes criteria. This study evaluated the correlation between the histological dating of two endometrial samples, obtained by biopsies performed on luteal phase days 6 and 10 of the same menstrual cycle.

Twenty five regularly cycling healthy women, complaining of infertility for at least one year, voluntarily agreed to participate in the study group and gave their informed written consent. Blood samples were drawn from patients between days one and five of the menstrual cycle, for basal plasma levels of LH, FSH and prolactin, measured by immunofluorimetry normal ranges: FSH: 2. A transvaginal ultrasonograph was also done to evaluate uterine echoes. From menstrual cycle day nine onwards, follicular diameter 7 and endometrial thickness 8 were measured daily by transvaginal ultrasound.

Uterine Cycle – The Phases of Endometrial Change