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The indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology , the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe. Groups may be defined by common genetic ancestry, common language, or both. According to the German monograph Minderheitenrechte in Europa co-edited by Pan and Pfeil there are 87 distinct indigenous peoples of Europe , of which 33 form the ethnic majority population in at least one sovereign state , while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities. In the context of European ethnography in particular, the terms ethnic group , people , nationality and ethno-linguistic group , are used as mostly synonymous, although preference may vary in usage with respect to the situation specific to the individual countries of Europe. Both Spain and the United Kingdom are special cases, in that the designation of nationality , Spanish and British , may controversially [ citation needed ] take ethnic aspects, subsuming various regional ethnic groups see nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain and native populations of the United Kingdom. Switzerland is a similar case, but the linguistic subgroups of the Swiss are discussed in terms of both ethnicity and language affiliations. Three stand-alone Indo-European languages do not fall within larger sub-groups and are not closely related to those larger language families;. In addition, there are also smaller sub-groups within the Indo-European languages of Europe, including;. Besides the Indo-European languages, there are other language families on the European continent which are wholly unrelated to Indo-European:. The Basques have been found to descend from the population of the late Neolithic or early Bronze Age directly.

Ethnicity: An African Predicament

In an otherwise scenic coastal city surrounded by rocky, lush terrain and buzzing with tourists, smoke and chaos consumed Budva, Montenegro as a clash between police and demonstrators ensued. As police started making their arrests, what started as a peaceful protest and stand-down escalated to an abhorrent example of police brutality.

There were dozens more injured, experiencing acts of overt overuse of force.

lists will lose their Italian nationality on the date of such official communication. There is hereby constituted the Free Territory of Trieste, consisting of the area.

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Either your web browser doesn’t support Javascript or it is currently turned off. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page. Plos one , 11 May , 15 5 : e DOI: Some data cannot be shared publicly because of the confidential nature i.

The autopsy rates of western-Europeans and ‘other’ ethnicities in the different ;12(6):e / [Europe PMC free article] they will be attached to this email and accessible via the submission site. remain under strict press embargo until 2 pm Eastern Time on the date of publication.

The genetic history of Europe since the Upper Paleolithic is inseparable from that of wider Western Eurasia. By about 50, years ago 50 ka a basal West Eurasian lineage had emerged alongside a separate East Asian lineage out of the undifferentiated ” non-African ” lineage of 70 ka. European early modern humans EEMH lineages between 40 and 26 ka Aurignacian were still part of a large Western Eurasian “meta-population”, related to Central and Western Asian populations.

These Bronze Age population replacements are associated with the Beaker culture archaeologically and with the Indo-European expansion linguistically. Ethnogenesis of the modern ethnic groups of Europe in the historical period is associated with numerous admixture events, primarily those associated with the Roman , Germanic , Norse , Slavic , Arab and Turkish expansions. Research into the genetic history of Europe became possible in the second half of the 20th century, but did not yield results with high resolution before the s.

In the s, preliminary results became possible, but they remained mostly limited to studies of mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal lineages. Autosomal DNA became more easily accessible in the s, and since the mids, results of previously unattainable resolution, many of them based on full-genome analysis of ancient DNA, have been published at an accelerated pace. The prehistory of the European peoples can be traced by the examination of archaeological sites, linguistic studies and by the examination of the DNA of the people who live in Europe or from ancient DNA.

The research continues and so theories rise and fall. Although it is possible to track migrations of people across Europe using founder analysis of DNA, most information on these movements comes from archaeology. It is important to note that the settlement of Europe did not occur in discrete migrations, as might appear to be suggested. Rather, the settlement process was complex and “likely to have occurred in multiple waves from the east and to have been subsequently obscured by millennia of recurrent gene flow”.

Cities: build networks and share plans to emerge stronger from COVID-19

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Mladic was sentenced to life imprisonment in for his role in atrocities including the Srebrenica massacre and the siege of Sarajevo. At a hearing conducted partly by video conference at the U. A prosecution lawyer responded that his convictions and sentence were justified and his appeal should be rejected. The appeals judges’ decision, likely to take months to reach, will go a long way to determining the legacy of the international tribunal that convicted dozens of war criminals from the Bosnian war including Mladic and his political master, Radovan Karadzic.

Use lower case for the north, the south of England, the south-west, north-east Scotland, south Wales, the west, western Europe, the far east.

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The Changing Racial and Ethnic Composition of the US Population: Emerging American Identities

The racial and ethnic makeup of the American people is in flux. New immigrants from Asia and Latin America have added a large measure of cultural and phenotypic diversity to the American population in recent decades, just as waves of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe did a century ago Bean and Stevens ; Higham ; Lieberson and Waters : Ch. Moreover, the boundaries between racial and ethnic groups are becoming blurred by high rates of intermarriage and the growing number of persons with mixed ancestry Lee and Bean

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The modern African state is the product of Europe, not Africa. To attempt at this late date to return to ancestral identities and resources as bases for building the modern African nation would risk the collapse of many countries. At the same time, to disregard ethnic realities would be to build on loose sand, also a high-risk exercise. Is it possible to consolidate the framework of the modern African state while giving recognition and maximum utility to the component elements of ethnicities, cultures, and aspirations for self-determination?

Ethnicity is more than skin color or physical characteristics, more than language, song, and dance. Deprive a people of their ethnicity, their culture, and you deprive them of their sense of direction or purpose.

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There is growing pressure on the UK government to review its policy on the wearing of face coverings in schools in England, after the Scottish government today announced that secondary school pupils will have to wear them in communal areas from Monday. Earlier this month, the World Health Organization issued new guidance saying that children above age 12 should wear face masks in line with recommended practice for adults in the place where they live.

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